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Country Egypt
Governorate Cairo
Area
• City 453 km2 (175 sq mi)
• Urban 6,640 km2 (2,560 sq mi)
• Metro 86,369 km2 (33,347 sq mi)
Elevation 23 m (75 ft)
Population (2011)
• City 9,120,350
• Density 17,190/km2 (44,500/sq mi)
• Urban 17,290,000
• Metro 19,439,541
• Demonym Cairene
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
Area code(s) 2






Cairo Egypt - Trips Holidays and Vacations Travel Egypt

Featured Hotels and Egypt Beach Resorts in Cairo, Egypt

Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa. Its metropolitan area is the 16th largest in the world. Located near the Nile Delta, it was founded in AD 969. Nicknamed "the city of a thousand minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life. Cairo was founded by the Fatimid dynasty in the 10th century AD, but the land composing the present-day city was the site of national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo. Cairo is also associated with Ancient Egypt as it is close to the ancient cities of Memphis, Giza and Fustat which are near the Great Sphinx and the pyramids of Giza.

Egyptians today often refer to Cairo as Maṣr (, مصر), the Egyptian Arabic pronunciation of the name for Egypt itself, emphasizing the city's continued role in Egyptian influence. Its official name is القاهرة al-Qāhirah , means literally "the Vanquisher" or "the Conqueror"; Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: , sometimes it is informally also referred to as كايرو Kayro It is also called Umm al-Dunya, meaning "the mother of the world".

Cairo has the oldest and largest film and music industries in the Arab world, as well as the world's second-oldest institution of higher learning, al-Azhar University. Many international media, businesses, and organizations have regional headquarters in the city; the Arab League has had its headquarters in Cairo for most of its existence.

With a population of 6.76 million spread over 453 square kilometers (175 sq mi), Cairo is by far the largest city in Egypt. With an additional 10 million inhabitants just outside the city, Cairo resides at the center of the largest metropolitan area in Africa and the Arab World as well as the tenth-largest urban area in the world. Cairo, like many other mega-cities, suffers from high levels of pollution and traffic. Cairo's metro—one of only two metros on the African continent (the other the Algiers Metro)—ranks among the fifteen busiest in the world, with over 1 billion annual passenger rides. The economy of Cairo was ranked first in the Middle East and 43rd globally by Foreign Policy's 2010 Global Cities Index.

The history of Egypt has been long and rich, due to the flow of the Nile river, with its fertile banks and delta. Its rich history also comes from its native inhabitants and outside influence. Much of Egypt's ancient history was a mystery until the secrets of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs were deciphered with the discovery and help of the Rosetta Stone. The Great Pyramid of Giza is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still standing. The Lighthouse of Alexandria, one of the other Seven Wonders, is gone. The Library of Alexandria was the only one of its kind for centuries.

Geography
Cairo is located in northern Egypt, known as Lower Egypt, 165 kilometres (100 mi) south of the Mediterranean Sea and 120 kilometres (75 mi) west of the Gulf of Suez and Suez Canal. The city is along the Nile River, immediately south of the point where the river leaves its desert-bound valley and branches into the low-lying Nile Delta region. Although the Cairo metropolis extends away from the Nile in all directions, the city of Cairo resides only on the east bank of the river and two islands within it on a total area of 453 square kilometres (175 sq mi).

Until the mid-19th century, when the river was tamed by dams, levees, and other controls, the Nile in the vicinity of Cairo was highly susceptible to changes in course and surface level. Over the years, the Nile gradually shifted westward, providing the site between the eastern edge of the river and the Mokattam highlands on which the city now stands. The land on which Cairo was established in 969 (present-day Islamic Cairo) was located underwater just over three hundred years earlier, when Fustat was first built.

Low periods of the Nile during the 11th century continued to add to the landscape of Cairo; a new island, known as Geziret al-Fil, first appeared in 1174, but eventually became connected to the mainland. Today, the site of Geziret al-Fil is occupied by the Shubra district. The low periods created another island at the turn of the 14th century that now composes Zamalek and Gezira. Land reclamation efforts by the Mamluks and Ottomans further contributed to expansion on the east bank of the river.

Because of the Nile's movement, the newer parts of the city—Garden City, Downtown Cairo, and Zamalek—are located closest to the riverbank. The areas, which are home to most of Cairo's embassies, are surrounded on the north, east, and south by the older parts of the city. Old Cairo, located south of the centre, holds the remnants of Fustat and the heart of Egypt's Coptic Christian community, Coptic Cairo. The Boulaq district, which lies in the northern part of the city, was born out of a major 16th-century port and is now a major industrial centre. The Citadel is located east of the city centre around Islamic Cairo, which dates back to the Fatimid era and the foundation of Cairo. While western Cairo is dominated by wide boulevards, open spaces, and modern architecture of European influence, the eastern half, having grown haphazardly over the centuries, is dominated by small lanes, crowded tenements, and Islamic architecture.

Northern and extreme eastern parts of Cairo, which include satellite towns, are among the most recent additions to the city, as they developed in the late-20th and early-21st centuries to accommodate the city's rapid growth. The western bank of the Nile is commonly included within the urban area of Cairo, but it composes the city of Giza and the Giza Governorate. Giza has also undergone significant expansion over recent years, and today the city, although still a suburb of Cairo, has a population of 2.7 million. The Cairo Governorate was just north of the Helwan Governorate from 2008 when some Cairo's southern districts, including Maadi and New Cairo, were split off and annexed into the new governorate, to 2011 when the Helwan Governorate was reincorporated into the Cairo Governorate.

Climate
In Cairo, and along the Nile River Valley, the climate is a hot desert climate (BWh according to the Köppen climate classification system), but often with high humidity due to the river valley's effects. Wind storms can be frequent, bringing Saharan dust into the city during the months of March and April (see Khamasin). High temperatures in winter range from 19 °C (66 °F) to 29 °C (84 °F), while night-time lows drop to below 11 °C (52 °F), often to 5 °C (41 °F). In summer, the highs rarely surpass 40 °C (104 °F), and lows drop to about 20 °C (68 °F). Rainfall is sparse and only happens in the colder months, but sudden showers do cause harsh flooding.

Health
Cairo, as well as neighbouring, has been established as Egypt's main centre for medical treatment, and despite some exceptions, has the most advanced level of medical care in the country. Cairo's hospitals include the JCI-accredited As-Salaam International Hospital—Corniche El Nile, Maadi (Egypt's largest private hospital with 350 beds), Ain Shams University Hospital, Dar El Fouad Hospital, as well as Kasr El Aini Hospital.

Education
Cairo has long been the hub of education and educational services for Egypt and the region. Today, Cairo is the centre for many government offices governing the Egyptian educational system, has the largest number of educational schools, and higher learning institutes among other cities and governorates of Egypt.

Culture
Over the ages, and as far back as four thousand years, Egypt stood as the land where many civilizations have met. The Pharaohs together with the Greeks, Babylonians and the Romans have left their imprints here. Muslims from the Arabian Peninsula, led by Amr ibn al-A'as, introduced Islam into Egypt. Khedive Mohammad Ali, with his Albanian family roots, put Egypt on the road to modernity. The cultural mixture in this city is only natural, considering its heritage. Egypt can be likened to an open museum with monuments of the different historical periods on display everywhere.

Economy
Cairo is also in every respect the centre of Egypt, as it has been almost since its founding in 969 AD. The majority of the nation's commerce is generated there, or passes through the city. The great majority of publishing houses and media outlets and nearly all film studios are there, as are half of the nation's hospital beds and universities. This has fueled rapid construction in the city—one building in five is less than 15 years old.
This astonishing growth until recently surged well ahead of city services. Homes, roads, electricity, telephone and sewer services were all suddenly in short supply. Analysts trying to grasp the magnitude of the change coined terms like "hyper-urbanization".

Signts and Attractions

Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square was founded during the mid 19th century with the establishment of modern downtown Cairo. It was first named Ismailia Square, after the 19th-century ruler Khedive Ismail, who commissioned the new downtown district's 'Paris on the Nile' design. After the Egyptian Revolution of 1919 the square became widely known as Tahrir (Liberation) Square. Several notable buildings surround the square including, the American University in Cairo's downtown campus, the Mogamma governmental administrative Building, the headquarters of the Arab League, the Nile Ritz Carlton Hotel, and the Egyptian Museum. Being at the heart of Cairo, the square witnessed several major protests over the years. However, the most notable event in the square was being the focal point of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution against former president Hosni Mubarak.
Tahrir Square was not renamed after the 1919 Egyptian Revolution but was renamed after the 1952 Revolution by Nasser.

The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, is home to the most extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities in the world. It has 136,000 items on display, with many more hundreds of thousands in its basement storerooms.

Khan El-Khalili
Khan el-Khalili is an ancient bazaar, or marketplace. It dates back to 1382, when Emir Djaharks el-Khalili built a large caravanserai, or khan. A caravanserai is a hotel for traders, and usually the focal point for any surrounding area. The caravanserai remains today.

Old Cairo
The part of Cairo that contains Coptic Cairo and Fustat, where the Coptic Museum, Babylon Fortress, Hanging Church, the Greek Church of St. George, the Ben Ezra Synagogue, the Amr ibn al-'As Mosque, etc. are located.

Cairo Tower
The Cairo Tower is a free-standing concrete TV tower in Cairo. It stands in the Zamalek district on Gezira Island in the Nile River, in the city centre. At 187 meters, it is 43 meters higher than the Great Pyramid of Giza, which stands some 15 kilometres (9 miles) to the southwest.

Al Qahira Fatimia Mosques
Established in 972, Al-Azhar mosque was historically the site of the renowned Al-Azhar University, until the university's move in the late 20th century to a new campus in Nasr City.
Al-Hakim Mosque Jame-al-Anwar, 928
Aqmar Mosque, 1125
Juyushi Mosque, 1085
Lulua Mosque, 1015

Islamic sites in the old city
Imam Husayn Mosque
Mosque-Mausoleum Zaynab
Sayyidah Ruqayya Mashhad
Sayyeda Nafisa Mosque
Mohammed Ali Basha Mosque

Famous people born in Cairo (Cairenes)

Abu Sa'id al-Afif, 15th century Samaritian
Boutros Boutros-Ghali, former Secretary-General of the United Nations
Naguib Mahfouz, novelist, Nobel Prize in Literature in 1988
Mohamed ElBaradei, former Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, 2005 Nobel Peace Prize laureate
Dalida, Italian-Egyptian singer who lived most of her life in France, received 55 golden records and was the first singer to receive a diamond disc
Yasser Arafat (1929–2004), Founder and first president of the Palestine Liberation Organization
Sir Magdi Yacoub (1935), world-famous cardiothoracic surgeon
Dorothy Hodgkin, British chemist, credited with the development of protein crystallography, Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964
Naguib Sawiris, 62nd richest person on earth in 2007 list of billionaires, reaching US$10.0 billion with his company Orascom Telecom Holding
Sherif Sonbol (1956), chief photographer of the Cairo Opera House and Al Ahram Weekly, book author, first Egyptian photographer whose work has been subject of an exhibit at New York's Lincoln Center
Constantin Xenakis (1931), Greek artist
Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu, Turkish professor and the secretary general of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Voula Zouboulaki (1931), Greek actress
Raffi Cavoukian (1948), Canadian children's singer
Umar al-Tilmisani, 3rd General Guide (Murshid al-'Am) of the Egyptian Muslim Brothers
Alaa Abdelnaby, NBA player for the Portland Trail Blazers, Milwaukee Bucks, Boston Celtics, Philadelphia 76ers, and the Sacramento Kings
Nora Valsami (1945), Greek actress
Maryem Tollar, Egyptian singer who primarily sings Arabic songs.
Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoğlu, Turkish novelist
Sonja Zuckerman, socialite and philanthropist known for her charitable contribution to women's shelter and homeless organisation, net worth of $5.3 billion
Moïse Rahmani (1944), Belgian author


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Featured Hotels and Egypt Beach Resorts in Cairo, Egypt


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